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Table of Contents

 


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts provides sophisticated searching and easy navigation across large numbers of primary-source documents.

Users who wish to get quick access to key documents and authors, should begin by familiarizing themselves with the various Tables of Contents.

Users who wish to conduct in-depth searches, either of specific authors or of the entire database, should explore the capabilities available on the Search Works and Search Authors pages.

1.2 UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATABASE

There are two basic ways to use the database.

  • Tables of Contents – Use these to see what's contained in the database. This is the best way to check which authors, works, document genres, theological traditions, and topics are represented in the database. To use this tool, simply click on the appropriate table of contents button on the navigation bar.
  • Search Tools – The "SEARCH" tools let you specify search criteria and to locate documents that meet these criteria. Search Authors allows you to select an author or authors and to explore how the selected author(s) uses keywords, biblical citations, and topics of interest to you. Search Works gives you the option to enter information into one or more of twelve available fields. The ability to take advantage of multiple fields simultaneously allows users to frame highly targeted and sophisticated search queries. 

1.3 SEARCH NAVIGATION BAR

The navigation bar lets you move around the database retrieval tools, including the Search tools and the Table of Contents tools. (The graphic below is just an illustration; it does not have live links.)

The Search tools are divided into two separate categories:

  • Search Works – allows users to search all documents and all controlled fields.
  • Search Authors – allows users to select authors and search three controlled fields.

The gray color indicates which search tool you are currently using. As you move from tool to tool, the gray moves to indicate which tool you've selected. You may click on the maroon parts of the Navigation Bar to move to the appropriate tool.

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1.4 TABLE OF CONTENTS NAVIGATION BAR

The Tables of Contents portion of the navigation bar lets you move around the Table of Contents tools. This portion of the navigation bar is divided into five separate categories, all of which provide quick access to specific documents within the database.

        Available Tables of Contents

  • Authors – a list of every major author in the database. Click on the Documents link next to any author name to generate a list of available works by that author. Links at the top of the screen allow users to sort the list by author name or by the theological traditions with which the authors were affiliated.
  • Works – a list of every source currently available in the database. Click on the appropriate link beneath each title to view either facsimile images or a digital transcription of the work; to generate a table of contents for the work; to perform a full-text search within the work; or to view the full bibliographic entry for the original print edition. Links at the top of the screen allow users to sort the list by title, author name, or the year in which the first edition of each work was published.
  • Topics – a list of theological and social/cultural topics, for which works in the database have been indexed. Click on the View Results link next to any topic to generate a list of all documents and document sections that have been indexed for that topic. Topics are divided into two categories: Theological Topics and Social/Cultural Topics. For more on topical indexing, see section 3.2.11 below.
  • Genres – a list of the types of documents available in the database. The Works link identifies the total number of available works within each genre. Click on the link to generate a list of available titles belonging to each genre.
  • Religious Traditions – a list of major Protestant traditions from the 16th and 17th centuries. The Authors link identifies the total number of available authors associated with each tradition. The Works link identifies the total number of available works associated with each tradition. Click on the desired link to generate a list of either the authors or the works associated with each tradition.

1.5 NOTES ON MARK-UP CONVENTIONS

In the majority of original documents spelling is inconsistent, even within a sentence. To facilitate searching, certain programmatic orthographic changes have been made to standardize variant spellings; however, original grammatical structure has been retained.

For more information on mark-up conventions, contact the Editor.

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1.6 ABOUT THE SEARCH SOFTWARE

PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.

PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., SGML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.

In addition to simple word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|") and AND (a space), and NOT (an exclamation mark) within a variety of searching contexts.

Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Although such a high degree of indexing can lead to reduced speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.

For more information on PhiloLogic, contact Catherine Mardikes, ETS Coordinator, The University of Chicago Library.

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2. SEARCHING

2.1 SEARCH OVERVIEW

There are two basic kinds of searching in the database:

  • Full-Text Searching enables you to do keyword searching for occurrences of words or phrases in the database.
  • Bibliographic Searching allows you to create a set of documents for subsequent full-text searching. Bibliographic searching involves the use of descriptive fields.

The conventions used in each kind of searching are slightly different as shown below.

2.2 FULL-TEXT SEARCHING

2.2.1 Full-Text Searching

Full-Text Searching enables users to locate specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves. The term(s) to be searched in selected documents is entered into the Keyword or Phrase box on the search form. Word searches in PhiloLogic are by default case insensitive, so that a search finds both lower and upper case representations of words. To facilitate finding and viewing Greek and other languages that use diacritics, searching in the Digital Library of Protestant Texts is also accent insensitive. Wildcard characters may also be employed to match various forms of a given root or base. The simplest search in PhiloLogic is a single term search without wildcards. If searching for a term such as "mystery" in the database, simply type the entire word into the Keyword or Phrase box and press the SEARCH button.

PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.

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2.2.2 Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching

Wildcard characters allow the user to find many related forms of a single search entry. This is in contrast to a simple word search that requires an exact match in order to find a word. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection. The most commonly used wildcards are listed below.

. (period):

matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).

* (asterisk):

matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).

* (asterisk):

matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c.*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).

.? (period question mark):

matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).

[a-z] (brackets):

matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, dat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).

E (capital letter):

matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search naïveté regardless of accents type naIvetE).

Parentheses, various brackets, and double quotes are not searchable characters and are word-breaking (e.g., to search vor[r]ia enter vor r ia.

Common mathematical symbols, such as the equal sign (=) and minus sign (-) will produce a "Nothing found" message. The plus sign (+) is not a searchable character, and, if entered, will be ignored.

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2.2.3 Boolean Operators in Full-Text Searching
  • The Boolean Operators AND, OR, and NOT are available in full-text and bibliographic searching. To take advantage of these operators, simply enter AND, OR, or NOT in uppercase letters between the desired terms. In full-text searching the vertical bar serves as the OR operator (e.g., freedom|liberty retrieves instances of either word) and the exclamation point (!) serves as the NOT operator (e.g., !holy ghost retrieves occurrences of "ghost," but not when it occurs in the phrase "holy ghost"). Uppercase OR and NOT will automatically be converted to | or! once a search has been executed.
  • Space: serves as the AND operator in sentence and paragraph Proximity Searching (e.g., church state retrieves all cases where church and state appear in the same specified context; this is not the case in phrase searching). Uppercase AND will automatically be converted to a space during searching.
  • These expressions can be combined for more sophisticated searches; for example, searching old|aged|ancient m.n|fellow* finds any of the three adjectives together with the nouns man or fellow in the singular or plural.

2.2.4 Punctuation and Full-Text Searching

All punctuation should be stripped from word searches except for apostrophes. Apostrophes must be entered as characters.

  • Hyphens: Hyphens act as word separators and are not searchable characters. Thus, one should treat hyphenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g., if searching for all-powerful, type in all powerful).
  • Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them. In this database apostrophes do not act as word separators. Therefore contractions and elisions must be entered without spaces before or after the apostrophe.
  • Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction and realize that &c must be entered as simply c.

2.2.5 Abbreviations and Ligatures

  • Abbreviations: Abbreviations have been resolved whenever provided in the encoding (e.g., "&abper;son: becomes "person"). The expanded text appears underlined. Unresolved abbreviations appear mostly as a tilde (˜) (e.g., sol˜nly for solemnly). The tilde is a non-word-breaking, unsearchable character. One must search for solenly to find sole˜nly. It is best to use a wildcard such as sole*nly, which finds solemnly, solempnly, sole˜nly, and sole˜pnly.
  • Ligatures: Ligatures (ae, oe, and dz) have been resolved into two letters for searching (e.g., enter aeternal, not æternal).
  • Macron and Breve: These diacritics are not to be entered in word searches. To find wrath with a long mark, enter wrath. The text will show as wrāth in the results. Unfortunately, ˘ does not display properly so the děmurělie with short marks looks as follows in display: d&ebreve;mureli˘e.
  • End of Line Word Breaks: Words that are broken at the end of a line are brought together for searching.
  • Illegible Text [gap]: Illegible text is indicated with a [gap]. These annotations are word-breaking since gaps can be many words as well as a few letters.

Tip: To view text as it appears in the source edition, simply click the Page Image link at the top of each page. This will generate a facsimile image of the original printed page in .jpg format.

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2.2.6 Accents and Special Characters

To facilitate locating and viewing words and phrases in multiple languages—Greek in particular—keyword searching in the Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts is accent-insensitive by default. So, for example, entering the characters λογος will return both the unaccented form λογος and the correctly accented form λόγος (as well as the capitalized forms Λογος and Λόγος). This relieves the user of the necessity of entering breathing marks, accents, and other diacritics—which, in any event, are often either omitted or inconsistently applied in early-modern print editions.

 

That having been said, here are some general notes related to searching accented words and special characters in PhiloLogic:

grave = (\) back slash

(e.g., a\ matches à).

acute = (/) forward slash

(e.g., e/ matches é).

circumflex = (^) caret

cedilla = (,) comma

(e.g., matches ç).

ümlaut/dieresis = (") double quote

(e.g. u" matches ü).

tilde = (˜) tilde

(e.g., n˜ matches ñ).

ae-ligature (æ) = ae

the ligature is resolved into two letters (e.g., to search æther type in aether).

oe-ligature (œ) = oe

the ligature is resolved into two letters (e.g., to search œconomy type in oeconomy).

2.2.7 Text Formatting

Formatting (e.g., font shifts, superscript, subscript, italics, bold, underline, etc.) are ignored in a search (e.g., search 1st simply as 1st).

2.2.8 Selecting a Search Option

One may use upper or lowercase letters; searches are case insensitive. Wildcards can be used in all search options. Be sure to review sections on accentuation and punctuation in full-text searching.

PhiloLogic at this time offers three kinds of full-text searches: Single Term or Phrase Search, which is set up as the default, Phrase Separated by X Words, and Proximity Searching in the Same Sentence or Paragraph. One may select and deselect a search option by clicking on the radio buttons.

  • Single Term or Phrase Search: To search a single term or phrase in the entire database or a defined corpus, make sure that the Single Term or Phrase radio button is selected. Simply enter the term into the keyword/phrase box, and click the SEARCH button. Single Term searching supports wildcard characters and the Boolean OR operator. Entering, for example, freedom OR liberty retrieves all occurrences of the word "freedom" or "liberty" in the entire database or a specified corpus. Phrase searching restricts the search to adjacent words in a particular order (punctuation in the text, except for apostrophes, should not be entered).
  • Phrase Separated by X Words: If you are looking for a phrase that could have slight variations in wording (e.g., "mystery of His body" and "mystery of Christ’s body"), or for multiple words in sequence that may be separated by intervening words, select the Phrase Separated by X Words radio button. Next, enter the maximum number of words that you wish to allow between the first specified keyword and the last specified keyword. Then enter two keywords from the phrase into the keyword/phrase box (e.g., mystery body). Note: For better performance it is a good idea to exclude very common words such as "of" in separated phrase searches.
  • Proximity Searching in the Same Sentence or Paragraph: Searching for more than one term in a single sentence or paragraph without regard to adjacency or word-order constitutes Proximity Searching. Simply type the desired words into the keyword/phrase box, indicate whether they are to be found in the same sentence or paragraph by selecting the appropriate radio button, and click SEARCH. For example, if looking for occurrences of the words "church" and "state" within the same sentence in any order, simply enter church state into the keyword/phrase box and select the sentence radio button in the Proximity Search field. Proximity searching supports wildcard characters and the Boolean operator OR. Entering church state OR magistrate retrieves instances of "church" and "state" or "church" and "magistrate" in the same sentence or paragraph.

If searching for words that occur within the same paragraph, please note that many texts have paragraphs that are extremely lengthy.

For a fuller discussion see the PhiloLogic User Manual

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3. SEARCH FIELDS AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

3.1 LIST OF ALL FIELDS THAT CAN BE SEARCHED

 

 

Authors

Works

 

Field Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

1    

Author

x

x

2

Biblical Citation

x

x

3

Genre

 

x

4

Publication City

 

x

5

Publication Country

 

x

6

Publication Date (1st Ed.)

 

x

7

Publication Language

 

x

8

Publisher

 

x

9

Theological Tradition

 

x

10

Title

 

x

11

Topic

x

x

 

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3.2 FIELD DESCRIPTIONS WITH SAMPLE SEARCHES

3.2.1 Author

Description: This field identifies the names of authors whose works are included in the database. A single authorized form of each author name is used for display and searching, regardless of the various forms of the name that may have appeared in the source editions.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze the way an author(s) uses certain keywords and biblical citations, or to examine an author’s treatment of specific topics of interest. To ensure accuracy of spelling, click the Terms button to the right of the Author field for a list of names.

Practical Example: Find the word "reason" in texts written by William Sherlock.

  • Click on Search Authors or Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "reason" into the Keyword or Phrase field.
  • Select "Sherlock, William" from the terms list next to the Author field.
  • Paste your selected term.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences of the word "reason" in works written by William Sherlock.

Tip: Multiple authors may be searched simultaneously. For example, one can compare the use of the word "reason" by Sherlock and Stephen Nye by pasting both names from the author terms list.

 

3.2.2 Biblical Citation

Description: This field returns all instances of biblical books, chapters, and verses cited by authors whose works are included in the database. Since citations in the source edition are formatted in a variety of ways (consider "Genesis 3," "Gen. III," and "the third chapter of the first book of Moses"), our editors have inserted uniform tags around each citation. From the user’s standpoint, this value-added tagging effectively eliminates the variations in spelling and format, and allows one to return a comprehensive and accurate set of results for any biblical citation. 

How to use this field: Use this field to search for citations of a book, a chapter, or a verse of the Bible.

Practical Example: Find references to Romans 8 in works written by John Calvin.

  • Click on Search Authors or Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Select "Romans" from the drop-down list in the Book field.
  • Enter the number "8" into the Chapter field.
  • Select and paste "Calvin, Jean" from the terms list next to the Author field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances where Calvin cites the eighth chapter of Romans.

Note: To look for verses within a range or pericope, one should enter the desired range into the Verse field, using a hyphen to separate the start and end verses. Entering, for example, Romans 8:28-39 will return citations of any single verse within that twelve-verse range; but it will also return all multi-verse citations that have both start and end verse within the specified range.

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3.2.3 Genre

Description: This field indicates the types of works included in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to a specific type of work.

Practical Example: Find all sermons that reference Romans 13.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Enter Romans 13 into the Biblical Citation field.
  • Select and paste "Sermons" from the terms list next to the Genre field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances where Romans 13 is cited in sermons.

3.2.4 Publication City

Description: This field indicates all the cities where documents included in the database were published.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to works published in a particular town or city.

Practical Example: Find all Biblical Commentaries published in Geneva.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Select and paste "Biblical Commentaries" from the terms list next to the Genre field.
  • Select and paste "Geneva" from the terms list next to the Publication City field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all Biblical Commentaries in the database that were published in the city of Geneva.

3.2.5 Publication Country

Description: This field indicates all the countries where documents included in the database were published.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to works published in a particular country.

Practical Example: Find all documents published in England that have sections indexed for the topic "Anti-trinitarian Controversies."

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Go to the Topic field and choose "Trinity, Anti-trinitarian Controversies" from the drop-down box.
  • Click the Add button.
  • Select and paste "England" from the terms list next to the Publication Country field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all document sections indexed for the specified topic, when and only when they occur in works published in England.

3.2.6 Publication Date (1st Ed.)

Description: This field enables you to find the year in which each document was first published. Note that this is not necessarily the same as the publication year of the edition included in the database. As a result, a 16th-century title drawn from an opera-omnia edition published in the 18th century can still be traced to its original historical context.

How to use this field: Use this field to find works first published in a certain year or within a certain date range. Or use this field to restrict keyword, citation, and topic searches to a specific date range.

Practical Example: Find all works by Zwingli first published in the years 1516 and 1517.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Select and paste "Zwingli, Ulrich" from the terms list next to the Author field.
  • Enter "1516-1517" into the Publication Date (1st Ed.) field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all Zwingli titles published in the specified years.

Note: To find works published before or after a given date, use an open hyphen, e.g., "–1550" to find works published before 1550.

 

3.2.7 Publication Language

Description: This field indicates the primary languages in which available documents in the database were written.

How to use this field: Use this field either to find all texts written in a specific language or to restrict keyword, citation, and topic searches to documents written in a specific language. If the user does not specify a language, the database searches documents in all languages by default.

Practical Example: Search for the topic "Church and State," but only return results found in documents written in English.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Go to the Topic field and select "Church and State" from the drop-down box.
  • Click on the Add button.
  • Select and paste "English" from the terms list next to the Publication Language field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

3.2.8 Publisher

Description: This field identifies the publishers of all available works in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all works published by a particular publisher(s). Or use it to limit keyword, citation, and topic searches to works published by a particular publisher(s).

Practical Example: Find all sources that were published by Christoph Froschauer.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Select and paste "Froschauer, Christoph" from the terms list next to the Publisher field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all available titles published by Froschauer.

Note: Publisher names are standardized and may vary from the form of the name that appears on the title page or colophon of the print edition.

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3.2.9 Theological Tradition

Description: This field identifies the theological tradition with which each author in the database is associated.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to works written by authors associated with a specific theological tradition.

Practical Example: Find discussions of the topic "Religious Freedom" in works written by Quaker authors.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Select the term "Freedom, Religious" from the drop-down box in the Topic field.
  • Click on the Add button.
  • Select and paste the term "Quaker" from the terms list next to the Theological Tradition field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of sections in documents written by Quaker authors that have been indexed for the specified topic.

3.2.10 Title

Description: This field identifies the titles of all the works currently available in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword, citation, and topic searches to a specific title or titles.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of the word "love" in Richard Baxter’s work A Christian Directory and compare results with occurrences of the same keyword in John Preston’s The Breast-plate of Faith and Love.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Enter the word "love" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and Paste "A Christian Directory" and "The Breast-plate of Faith and Love" from the terms list next to the Title field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences of the keyword in these two works.

3.2.11 Topic

Description: This field allows you to search the controlled vocabulary of Theological and Social/Cultural Topics discussed in all sources. To see a list of terms go to the Topics Table of Contents. Our editors apply topic terms at the book, chapter, or section level to indicate the subject matter being addressed by the author at each of these levels. This topical indexing allows users to go beyond keyword searching and to efficiently pinpoint document sections where a topic of interest is treated in a sustained and substantive manner.

How to use this field: Use this field to locate entire works, or, more typically, specific chapters, sections, and subsections where a topic of interest is discussed extensively.

Practical Example: Find all document sections where authors in the database discuss the topic of marriage at length.

  • Click on Search Authors or Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Select the topic "Marriage, Family, and Human Sexuality" from the drop-down box in the Topic field.
  • Click on the Add button.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all documents and document sections that have been indexed for the topic "marriage."

Note: On the Search pages, the Topic drop-down box has two parts, each arranged alphabetically. In the first part (beginning with "Angels") all theological topics are listed alphabetically. In the second part (beginning with "Ancient Thought and Culture") all social/cultural topics are listed alphabetically.


Also note that users can select multiple topics. When searching for multiple topics, use the radio buttons to the right of the Topic field to select either a Boolean AND or a Boolean OR operator. The AND operator will return documents and document sections that have been indexed for all the selected topics. The OR operator will return documents and document sections that have been indexed for any of the selected topics.

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 3.3 MULTI-FIELD SEARCHING

 

As indicated in the field descriptions and sample searches given above, the Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts gives users the option to enter information into multiple fields in order to frame sophisticated and targeted search queries. This capability is especially useful when one combines topic searching with either a keyword or a biblical citation search. Our editors have indexed virtually every chapter, section, and sub-section of every work, identifying the theological and social/cultural topics that are being discussed by an author at each document level. As a result, one can quickly locate all chapters in all documents where, for instance, the topic of "Church and State" is being treated in a sustained and substantive way. This is a far more effective way of getting at research-relevant content than mere keyword searching, where one would return many thousands of (often irrelevant) "hits" if one simply launched a search for the words "church OR state."

 

At the same time, the topical indexing performed by our editors makes it possible to use keyword searching in a far more "intelligent" and targeted way. By entering a keyword and selecting a topic of interest, users can locate occurrences of that keyword specifically in sections that have been indexed for the desired topic. Consider the following sample search:

 

Practical Example: Find all instances of the word "pope" or "papa*" in document sections that have been indexed for the topic "Church and State."

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "pope OR papa*" into the Keyword or Phrase field.
  • Go to the Topic field and select "Church and State" from the drop-down box.
  • Click on the Add button.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list showing instances of the keywords when and only when they occur within sections that have been indexed for the desired topic.

In the same way, one can combine a biblical citation search with a topic search to return a set of results more focused than one would return by using the biblical citation field alone.


Practical Example: Find all citations of I Corinthians 11 in document sections that have been indexed for the topic "Eucharist/Lord’s Supper."

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "I Corinthians 11" into the Biblical Citation field.
  • Go to the Topic field and select "Eucharist/Lord’s Supper" from the drop-down box.
  • Click on the Add button.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list showing instances of the citation when and only when they occur within sections that have been indexed for the desired topic.

Users should also be aware that they can combine a keyword search with a biblical citation search. This combination will return results where the keyword and the citation occur in the same paragraph.


Practical Example: Find all instances where the keyword λογος occurs in the same paragraph with a citation of John 1.

  • Click on Search Works on the navigation bar.
  • Enter the word λογος into the Keyword or Phrase box (remember that searching is accent insensitive, so this form of the Greek word will also return all accented forms).
  • Enter "John" into the Biblical Citation field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list showing instances of the keyword when and only when it occurs in the same paragraph with the desired biblical citation.

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4. SELECTING A RESULTS FORMAT

At the head of any results set one finds the bibliographic criteria for the search, the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered, and the total number of occurrences of the search term(s) in the database. The number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report if PhiloLogic has not detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences on the screen.

4.1 CONTEXT DISPLAY

Context Display is the default results format option. In this format each keyword is highlighted in red, located contextually within a portion of the passage in which it is found. Above the contextual representation of the keyword(s), one finds a short citation consisting of the author’s name and the title of the work from which the excerpted passage has been drawn. This citation is followed by links to various levels within the document (page, paragraph, section, and subsection). Clicking on any of these links takes one to the specified level, where one will find the keyword(s), still highlighted, in the extended context of the paragraph, page, or section. Consider the example below:


13. Bradford, John. The letters of Master John... [Page 235 | Paragraph | SubSect | Section]

are there hoarded where thieves cannot come to steal them; there is your heart: and therefore you can and will say, as the philosopher said when he was robbed of all he had, Omnia mea mecum porto, "I carry all with me." If he, an heathen, took his riches to be the world's rather than his, how much more should we so do? Therefore, my dear brother, accordingly prepare yourself, as you have done and do I hope. Read the second of Ecclesiasticus, how he counselleth them that will serve God, to prepare


  • The citation indicates the original source of the material.
  • Page 235 – indicates the page where the occurrence was found. Page numbers, when available, refer to the page of the print edition. Click on it to go to the page.
  • Paragraph – indicates the paragraph where the occurrence was found. Click on it to go to the paragraph.
  • SubSect – indicates the subsection where the occurrence was found.
  • Section – indicates the larger section where the subsection was found.

PhiloLogic displays as much text as needed to capture all words in a multi-term search and all search words are highlighted. The reference listed with the short citation is linked to the text. In clicking on the page number, one retrieves the full page with keywords still highlighted. The same is true for paragraph and the three other levels of hierarchy.

Note: Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraphs in some documents are very lengthy.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of 100. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for downloading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. 908 occurrences have been generated so far. (Please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress)". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

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4.2 LINE-BY-LINE DISPLAY

The Line-by-Line Display is a good format for scanning or printing large result sets since it limits the text displayed to a single line of text. Each occurrence is represented by an abbreviated title citation with a link to the page in the document where the term occurs. At the bottom of the report one finds the Results Bibliography, which gives the full references for each title in the results set.

Note: When executing a "Proximity Search," especially with paragraph set as the searching parameter, it is best to avoid the Line-by-line format since all search terms are not likely to be in the single line of text displayed. The term that is located first in the paragraph is the one that is centered in the single line of text. Using the Context Display format ensures that all terms are included in the display even if the paragraph should happen to run for several pages. One can switch back and forth between line-by-line format and context displays at any time while viewing results. PhiloLogic takes the user to the same set of results being viewed at the time of the switch.

4.3 OTHER OPTIONS FOR SORTING AND DISPLAYING RESULTS

 

In addition to line-by-line and context displays, users also may choose from three options for sorting results: Frequency by Author, Frequency by Title, and Frequency by Year. Select Frequency by Author to see your results organized by author, beginning with the author who uses the term most frequently. Select Frequency by Title to see your results organized by title, beginning with the work in which the term occurs most frequently. Select Frequency by Year to see your results organized by decade, beginning with the decade in which the term occurs most frequently. Regardless of the sort option selected, users will always see a number in front of each title. This indicates the number of times the term occurs within each work displayed. Users will also see an "occurrences" link after each title. Clicking on the "occurrences" link takes one to a context display, where each instance of the term within the selected title is highlighted and shown in context.

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5. REFINED SEARCH RESULTS

5.1 FREQUENCY BY AUTHOR, YEAR, OR TITLE REPORTS

At the bottom of the Search Works screen, PhiloLogic offers various options for organizing and displaying results. The same set of options is available at the bottom of any screen where a searchable corpus of documents has been created. Unlike context and line-by-line displays, the reports generated when one uses the frequency options do not show terms in context. Nevertheless, links are provided if the user wishes to view term occurrences in context.

5.1.1 Frequency by Title

A Frequency by Title report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency. Each title has a link for viewing all occurrences of the term found within that title. If multiple unique forms of the term have been located, the report will identify each unique form next to the phrase Search Terms.

5.1.2 Frequency by Author

A Frequency by Author report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by author in descending order of frequency. Individual titles are grouped by author and each title has a link for viewing all occurrences of the term found within that title. If multiple unique forms of the term have been located, the report will identify each unique form next to the phrase Search Terms.

5.1.3 Frequency by Years

A Frequency by Years report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by year (or span of years) in descending order of frequency. Each title has a link for viewing all occurrences of the term found within that title. If multiple unique forms of the term have been located, the report will identify each unique form next to the phrase Search Terms.

Note the drop-down box in the Frequency by Year field. Users can select to display frequency reports by year, decade, quarter-century, half-century, and century.

5.2 FREQUENCY PER 10,000 REPORTS

Frequency per 10,000 reports differ in that they list frequency of the term in descending order of rate per 10,000 words. The number of raw occurrences is given in brackets. For example, 76.09 [58] means that a total of 58 occurrences of the term have been found at a frequency rate of 76.09 occurrences per 10,000 words for a given title, author, or year/span of years.

These reports do not display occurrences in context. Nevertheless, links are provided if the user wishes to view term occurrences in context.

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5.3 COLLOCATION TABLE

Users can choose to generate a collocation table, which indicates the frequency of words adjacent to your search term or phrase. This allows the user to discover lexical collocations within the database. The user selects one word as the node or keyword and enters it into the Keyword or Phrase box. Wildcards are allowed, but no phrases; single terms only are permitted. Next, activate the Collocation Table radio button at the bottom of the screen and select the number of words you want the collocation search to span (5 words is the default). The program then scans the concordance entries for the keyword and lists in table format all the words that occur near the keyword within the specified span. The table ranks words in order of the frequency with which they occur near the keyword. The three columns represent words on either side of the keyword, words to the left of the keyword, and words to the right of the keyword. Common words such as articles and demonstratives are filtered out. Click the Filtered Words link to view a list of common words that are filtered by default. To include filtered words in a report select "Turn Filter Off" on the search-form.

In the example below it can be seen that the word "Endor" occurs most frequently within 5 words on either side of the word "witch." The number in parentheses next to the word indicates the number of times the term occurs in the result set.


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for witch.
Number of Unique Forms: 1

Search Terms: witch

Your search found 134 occurrences.


Keywords found (with occurrences): witch (134)

The 129 most common words are being filtered from this report. To include filtered words select "Turn Filter Off" on the search-form.

Ranking

Within 5 Words
on Either Side

 

Ranking

Within 5 Words
to Left only

 

Ranking

Within 5 Words
to Right only

1

endor (28)

 

1

saul (11)

 

1

endor (28)

2

saul (14)

 

2

suffer (6)

 

2

sam (6)

3

sam (8)

 

3

samuel (5)

 

3

she (5)

4

devil (7)

 

4

went (4)

 

4

live (5)

5

whore (6)

 

5

thou (4)

 

5

whore (4)

6

suffer (6)

 

6

simon (4)

 

6

her (4)

7

she (6)

 

7

shalt (4)

 

7

saul (3)

8

samuel (6)

 

8

raised (4)

 

8

saith (3)

9

did (6)

 

9

like (4)

 

9

other (3)

10

live (5)

 

10

devil (4)

 

10

into (3)


The collocation table is useful to see how specific authors in various time periods use particular words. For example, by running a search similar to the example above, it can be seen that the word "Christ" occurs much more frequently in conjunction with the word "love" in the 17th century than the 16th century.

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5.4 LINE-BY-LINE (KWIC) SORTED BY KEYWORD

Line-by-Line (KWIC) sorted by Keyword allows a user to sort his/her results alphabetically by the word that is located immediately to the right or left of the keyword. This report does not support phrase searching. It can only be generated for a single word or word pattern (e.g., myster*). Results of over 20,000 cannot be sorted.

5.5 WORD IN CLAUSE POSITION (THEME/RHEME)

A Word in Clause Position report can only be generated for a single word or word pattern (e.g., concord*). Word positions are calculated as follows: Front of Clause (first 35%); Last (last 10%); Remainder (middle 55%). Words of 2 letters or fewer and numbers are excluded in calculating clause length. Please note that clauses are identified with punctuation as the primary determining factor so many unpunctuated clauses will go undetected. This feature is experimental and should be used only as a rough indicator. The search can take some time for complete results, but one does receive results as they are ready. When the report is finished, click on the link to "Statistical Summary" to see a rough indication of word position.  

5.6 FULL TEXT SEARCH RESULTS BY BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Users may elect to sort full-text search results alphabetically by author name or title, or chronologically by year of publication. To use this feature, enter your desired term(s) in the Keyword or Phrase box, then scroll to the bottom of the screen and activate the radio button next to the Sort Full Text Search Results by Bibliographic Information field. The available sort options are: Author, Title, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by author name then alphabetically by title; Author, Year of Publication, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by author name then chronologically by the first-edition publication date of each title; Title, Author, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by title then alphabetically by author name; and Year of Publication, Author, which will return results for your search organized chronologically by the first-edition publication date of each title then alphabetically by author.

5.7 BIBLIOGRAPHIC SEARCH SORT ORDER

Users may elect to sort bibliographic search results alphabetically by author name or title, or chronologically by year of publication. A bibliographic search is distinguished from a full-text search in that it involves searching on metadata, such as theological tradition, document genre, publication city, etc. If you are conducting this sort of search and have elected not to include a keyword or phrase, you may use the Bibliographic Search Sort Order field to sort your results in one of four ways: Author, Title, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by author name then alphabetically by title; Author, Year of Publication, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by author name then chronologically by the first-edition publication date of each title; Title, Author, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by title then alphabetically by author name; and Year of Publication, Author, which will return results for your search organized chronologically by the first-edition publication date of each title then alphabetically by author.

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6. NAVIGATING DOCUMENTS FROM WORD SEARCHES

In Context Display one finds several options for viewing larger portions of content. In addition to "page" and "paragraph" links, you'll see links for "section" and, sometimes, "subsection." These divisions reflect the logical organization of the document. The most common "section" type is a chapter within a work, although the precise nature of sections and subsections will vary according to the structure of the printed document itself.

Any level—paragraph, page, section, or subsection—may be selected by simply clicking on the appropriate link. Once you have reached the specified level, you will find the search term(s) still highlighted. You may also find links for navigating to the next paragraph, page, section, or subsection. By using these links, you may continue reading the document paragraph by paragraph, page by page, or section by section.

Images: In the Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts facsimile images of the original print edition are available for every page in the database. This allows users to view both the original work and its transcribed counterpart for comparison purposes. To view the facsimile image, click the "Page Image" link at top of each text page. This will spawn a separate window, which can be moved and re-sized. Users can also toggle back and forth between the text page and the facsimile image.

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